Volume 83
  • Реєстрація



1Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
2Tallinn University, Estonia

1*This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., 2This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


This article presents an analysis of current processes in the youth labour market in the context of their impact on the student youth migration sentiments with a focus on the case of Estonia. Nowadays, student migration takes new forms, which are determined by objective and subjective factors and need to be conceptualized. They are characterized by complicated socio-economic interactions and social relations, so the analysis is based not only on statistics but also on the results of a survey of student youth conducted in November-December 2019.
The analysis of the youth labour market in Estonia revealed the relationship between unemployment and education levels and some trends in the unemployment dynamics. This made it possible to identify key processes, such as spread of circular and chain migration, an increasing intensity of migration flow, transition to positive values of net migration. The analysis confirmed that Estonia’s accession to the EU had a positive effect on the youth labour market, and the improvement of the socio-economic situation in the country was the main reason for growing migration flow of young people from abroad.
The identification of migration sentiments of student youth is based on the analysis of factors that push them from the country of origin and pull to the countries of possible migration. Countries that are the most attractive forEstonian students in terms of education and employment have been identified, including ones with a positive image for immigration, high wage level and favourable working conditions. It is determined that the migration aspirations of the respondents are quite high. The migratory attitudes of student youth towards permanent migration are analysed in relation to the education of parents and the level of foreign language proficiency.

Key words:

youth, labour market, unemployment, migration sentiments, survey, Estonia 





1. American Institute of Public Opinion. (2020). Potential Net Migration Index. Retrieved from: https://news.gallup.com/migration/interactive.aspx.
2. Anniste, K. (2014). East-West migration in Europe: The case of Estonia after regaining independence. Dissertationes geographicae Universitatis Tartuensis, 57. 20 p.
3. Anniste, K., Tammaru, T., Pungas, E., & Paas, T. (2012). Emigration after EU enlargement: Was there a brain drain effect in the case of Estonia? 20 p. University of Tartu Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper, 87-2012. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2070036 
4. Brettell, C., & Hollifield, J. F. (eds.). (2014). Migration theory: talking across disciplines. Routledge.
5. Brixiova, Z., & Egert, B. (2012). Labour Market Reforms and Outcomes in Estonia. Comparative Economic Studies, 54, 103–120.
6. Eamets, R. (2013). Labour market and labour market policies during great recession: the case of Estonia. IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, 2, 1–25. 
7. Dubych, K. V. (2017). The current global trends and Ukraine’s realities in youth unemployment. Bulletin of the NAPA under the President of Ukraine (Series “Рublic Аdministration”), 3, 87–94. [Дубич К.В. Сучасні світові тенденції та українські реалії молодіжного безробіття. Вісник НАДУ при Президентові України. Серія «Державне управління». 2017. Вип. 3. С. 87–94].
8. Grzymala-Kazłowska, A., & Brzozowska, A. (2017). From drifting to anchoring. Capturing the experience of Ukrainian migrants in Poland. Central and Eastern European Migration Review, 6(2), 103–122. 
9. Lindemann, K. (2014). The effects of ethnicity, language skills, and spatial segregation on labour market entry success in Estonia. European Sociological Review, 30(1), 35–48. 
10. Lindemann, K., & Kogan, I. (2013). The role of language resources in labour market entry: comparing Estonia and Ukraine. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 39(1), 105–123.
11. Maidanik, I. P. (2010). Ukrainian youth in the labor markets of foreign countries. Kyiv: Ptoukha Institute for Demography and Social Studies of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [Майданік І.П. Українська молодь на ринках праці зарубіжних держав. Київ: Інститут демографії та соціальних досліджень імені М. В. Птухи НАН України, 2010. 176 с.].
12. Masso, J., Eamets, R., & Mõtsmees, P. (2014). Temporary migrants and occupational mobility: evidence from the case of Estonia. International Journal of Manpower, 35(6), 753–775.
13. Masso, J., Kureková, L.M., Tverdostup, M., & Žilinčíková, Z. (2018). What are the employment prospects for young Estonian and Slovak return migrants? In O’Reilly, J., Leschke, J., Ortlieb, R., Seeleib-Kaiser, M., & Villa, P. (eds.). Youth Labor in Transition: Inequalities, Mobility, and Policies in Europe. Oxford University Press.
14. Mezentsev, K., & Mezentseva, N. (2018). Migratory behaviour of student youth: a path to a career abroad or a situational opportunity for self-realization? In Region-2018: search for optimal development strategy (pp. 33–37). Kharkiv: V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University [Мезенцев К.В., Мезенцева Н.І. Міграційна поведінка студентської молоді: шлях до кар’єри за кордоном чи ситуативна можливість самореалізації? Регіон-2018: пошук стратегії оптимального розвитку. Харків: Харківський національний університет імені В.Н. Каразіна, 2018. С. 33–37].
15. Mezentsev, K., Mezentseva, N., Mostova, I., & Saichuk V. (2014). Geography of labour: modern concepts and regional labour markets. Kyiv: Kyiv University Press. [Мезенцев К. В., Мезенцева Н. І., Мостова І. О. Сайчук В. С. Географія праці: сучасні концепти та ринки праці регіонів. Київ: ВПЦ «Київський університет». 210 c.].
16. Nugin, R. (2014). “I think that they should go. Let them see something”. The context of rural youth’s out-migration in post-socialist Estonia. Journal of Rural Studies, 34, 51–64. 
17. Paliskova, M. (2014). Youth Unemployment – Problem of the European Labor Market. In 8th International Days of Statistics and Economics (pp. 1083-1093). Prague.
18. Sippola, M. (2014). Labour migration in the case of Estonia and Kyrgyzstan: disillusionment with lack of opportunity in the homeland. The Journal of Social Policy Studies, 12(4), 613–624. 
19. Niemets, L., & Mezentsev, K. (eds.). (2019). Social Geography. Kyiv: Phoenix. [Соціальна географія /за ред. Л.Нємець, К.Мезенцева. Київ: Фенікс, 2019. 304 с.].
20. Statistics Estonia (2020). Retrieved from: https://www.stat.ee.
21. Tverdostup, M., & Masso, J. (2016). The labour market performance of young return migrants after the crisis in CEE countries: the case of Estonia. Baltic Journal of Economics, 16(2), 192–220

Suggested citation: Provotar, N., Parenyuk, V., & Reimann, M. (2020). Estonia’s youth labour market: unemployment and migration sentiments of student youth. Ekonomichna ta Sotsialna Geografiya, 83, 12–20, https://doi.org/10.17721/2413-7154/2020.83.12-20. [In Ukrainian]. [Провотар Н., Паренюк В., Рейманн М. Молодіжний ринок праці Естонії: безробіття та міграційні настрої студентської молоді // Економічна та соціальна географія. 2020. Вип. 83. С. 12–20].

Print ISSN: 2413-7154. Online ISSN: 2413-7553

Author Guidelines

Instruction for authors: 

Reviewer Guidelines

Download Reviewer's Form: 

Publication Ethics

Current Issue

Contact information

Editorial address:

Department of Economic and Social Geography, Faculty of Geography, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Prospekt Akademika Hlushkova, 2a, MSP-680, Kyiv, Ukraine 

Tel .: 00 38 044 521-32-24,

00 38 044 521-35-79

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Contact us